Science describes reality in ways we can understand, and its descriptions and predictions often work.

But, if we’d evolved with different sense organs and different ways of perceiving, our science would be different.

We don’t uncover the raw truths of existence – we work out a story that we can understand and which seems, to us, to work.


Commercial news attracts an audience by reinforcing prejudice and generating fear.

And they present new ideas the same way.

Existing prejudice is probably against a new idea, so reinforcing it will encourage rejection.

And if it’s presented with fear, it’s likely to be fear of the new idea.

So new ideas will be rejected because commercial news media have to attract an audience.

And so new ideas which identify problems and provide solutions, won’t be available.






Religious violence in France in the 1500s came from conflicting interpretations of the bible.

Both sides believed that God was infallible. The writer Montaigne agreed but pointed out that, unlike God, humans were fallible and might misunderstand God’s wishes.

Montaigne thought that, if the rival groups recognised their own fallibility, they would become more tolerant.

Today, it’s been suggested that recognising human fallibility could reduce tension between Christians and Moslems.

But intolerant, aggressive, people aren’t likely to listen to new ideas.

Fallibility won’t work unless it’s accepted -within the context of the religion –  before conflict arises.